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Multivitamins have gotten a bad reputation lately and we can understand why. Traditionally, multivitamins are overpriced, under-dosed and typically a compendium of useless “extra” vitamins and minerals. This doesn't mean however that a real multivitamin cannot be useful and indeed quite effective at ensuring individuals get adequate doses of very necessary nutrients. These nutrients are essential for numerous biological functions, many if deficient, that can impact performance. At Ouroboros, we pride ourselves in cutting through the bullshit in the industry and creating supplements that are effective and affordable. We had three goals with this multivitamin:

  1. Include all properly researched vitamins and minerals proven to be useful at their effective doses (RDA)
  2. Include these most bioavailable forms of these vitamins and minerals, never sacrificing quality
  3. Make the end product not only effective, but very affordable to the consumer

We believe we've accomplished this with our multivitamin. We contacted Peter J Fitschen (PhD in Nutritional Sciences: to help formulate a multivitamin that fit all of our criteria. We are extremely proud of the result. Below you will find a write up by Peter detailing his thought process and rational for why this multivitamin is useful to lifters.

From Peter Fitschen:

Nutrient deficiencies are common among bodybuilders, especially during contest prep when food variety may be limited due to reduced caloric intake. Studies of bodybuilders from the 1980’s and 1990’s reported a wide number of vitamin and mineral deficiencies [1, 2]. While most bodybuilders at that time used what we would consider “bro” approaches to contest prep, increased popularity of flexible dieting approaches and greater food variety have decreased the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies [3]. However, many bodybuilders still likely fall short of the RDA for vitamins and minerals daily. In fact, recent recommendations for bodybuilders in the offseason [4] and during contest prep [5] suggest consumption of a low-dose multivitamin daily to prevent micronutrient deficiencies.

Many vitamin and mineral supplements dose vitamins and minerals in amounts far exceeding the RDA. In some cases, this may exceed the upper limit for daily consumption and in others it may result in expensive urine as large portions of the supplement are not utilized. The goal with this multi-vitamin was to provide 100% the RDA for vitamins and minerals without providing an excessive dosage well beyond what is necessary for daily consumption. Exceptions include vitamin D where the dosage is roughly amount necessary to bring most of the population up to a blood concentration of 75 nmol/L (a level thought to be superior to 50nmol/L which the RDA is based upon) [6] and vitamin B12 where intake is higher to account for low bioavailability in a single oral dosage [7].

Another common problem with many multivitamins is that the forms of vitamins and minerals supplemented are based upon cost rather than bioavailability. The specific compounds supplemented in this product were chosen because they are the most effective. For example, magnesium in multivitamins is commonly supplemented as magnesium oxide due to cost; however, magnesium citrate is more bioavailable and included in this product [8]. Similarly, copper is commonly supplemented as copper sulfate; however, copper gluconate has been found to be more stable and is used in this product [9].

While supplements should not be used in place of a sound dietary approach, consuming a multivitamin daily can help reduce risk of micronutrient deficiencies. In total, this supplement provides at least 100% of the male RDA for 20 vitamins and minerals, only exceeding this amount for 2 exceptions. Thus, consumers can be ensured they are not consuming unnecessary excesses. Moreover, the forms of vitamins and minerals included were chosen based upon having superior bioavailability and effectiveness. Therefore, consumes can be sure that they are getting the most from their money and consuming an effective product.



1. Kleiner, S.M., T.L. Bazzarre, and M.D. Litchford, Metabolic profiles, diet, and health practices of championship male and female bodybuilders. J Am Diet Assoc, 1990. 90(7): p. 962-7.

2. Sandoval, W.M., V.H. Heyward, and T.M. Lyons, Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male body builders at competition. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1989. 29(1): p. 63-70.

3. Ismaeel, A., S. Weems, and D.S. Willoughby, A Comparison of the Nutrient Intakes of Macronutrient-Based Dieting and Strict Dieting Bodybuilders. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2018. 28(5): p. 502-508.

4. Iraki, J., et al., Nutrition Recommendations for Bodybuilders in the Off-Season: A Narrative Review. Sports (Basel), 2019. 7(7).

5. Helms, E.R., A.A. Aragon, and P.J. Fitschen, Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2014. 11: p. 20.

6. Vieth, R., et al., The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007. 85(3): p. 649-50.

7. Carmel, R., How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. Blood, 2008. 112(6): p. 2214-21.

8. Lindberg, J.S., et al., Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. J Am Coll Nutr, 1990. 9(1): p. 48-55.

9. Rosado, J.L., Zinc and copper: proposed fortification levels and recommended zinc compounds. J Nutr, 2003. 133(9): p. 2985S-9S